Saturday, December 20, 2008


Concrete is easily and readily prepared and fabricated in all sorts of conceivable shapes and structural systems. It is used in the realms of infrastructure, habitation, work and play. Its great simplicity lies in the fact that its constituents are ubiquitous and are readily available almost anywhere in the world 1. As a result of its ubiquity, functionality and flexibility it has become by far the most popular and widely used construction material in the world 2.
The material concrete is often confused with the material cement. Cement is one of the many constituents of concrete, part of the glue that holds the other materials together. Concrete is made by mixing cement, supplementary cementitious materials, water, fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stone) with or without admixtures, reinforcement, fibres or pigments.
The ingredients are proportioned and engineered to produce a concrete of a specific strength and durability, so it is 'fit for purpose' for the job for which it is intended. It can be produced in the form of precast products or as ready-mixed concrete, which is delivered in the familiar rotating concrete lorry.


Thursday, November 20, 2008

Wednesday, September 3, 2008

World's Tallest Building Just Got Taller

AFP - Wednesday, September 3

DUBAI (AFP) - - The world's tallest building just got taller -- the Burj Dubai tower in the booming Gulf emirate of Dubai has now reached a height of 688 metres (2,257 feet) and is still growing, developers Emaar said on Tuesday.

It now boasts 160 storeys, the highest skyscraper in the world, Emaar said in a statement.

The skyscraper, set for completion in September 2009, is one of several mega projects taking shape in Dubai, which is a member of the oil-rich United Arab Emirates (UAE) federation.

Burj Dubai, which was started in 2004, overtook Taiwan's Taipei 101 tower as the world's tallest building when it reached 512 metres (1,533 feet) in April 2007.

It became the tallest man-made structure on the planet, when Emaar announced in April that it has surpassed the 629-metre (2,063-foot) KVLY-TV mast in the United States.

Its eventual height remains a closely-guarded secret, though there is speculation it will reach a final height of 900 metres (2,953 feet).

It had been due for completion in the bustling city state at the end of 2008, but Emaar said in June that "finishing touches" had pushed back the date until September next year.

The skyscraper is being built by a consortium involving Arabtec Construction LLC of the UAE, Samsung of South Korea and Besix of Belgium.

Many building projects in Dubai, which is going through a construction frenzy, have been facing delays caused by shortage of building materials and skilled labour.


Thursday, August 28, 2008

New ISO standard for safe, long-lasting buildings and structures

ISO has published a new standard to help engineers, builders, and regulators to design structures that are safe and resistant to failure due to environmental and mechanical stresses, and to material degradation.

Buildings, civil engineering works, industrial structures, and their components should be conceived, constructed, inspected, maintained and repaired in such a way that, under foreseeable environmental conditions, they maintain their required performance during their design lives with sufficient reliability for the safety and comfort of users and the intended use of the structure.

ISO 13823:2008—General Principles on the Design of Structures for Durability specifies general principles and recommends procedures for the verification of the durability of structures subject to known or foreseeable environmental actions, including mechanical actions, causing material degradation leading to failure of performance. It will help to ensure reliability of performance throughout the service life of the structure.

This International Standard has the following objectives:

  • to improve the evaluation and design of structures for durability by the incorporation of building science principles into structural engineering practice, and
  • to provide a framework for the development of mathematical models to predict the service life of components of the structure.
Prof. A.M. Brandt, Chair of ISO/TC 98, Bases for Design of Structures, comments, "The general principles in the verification and design of structures and components for durability in this International Standard should be used whenever a minimum service life is required, for new structures as well as for the assessment of existing structures."

The standard is intended to serve a similar harmonization role that ISO 2394:1998, General Principles on Reliability for Structures, has had over the past 30 years for the verification and design of structures against failure due to mechanical stress, ranging from gravity to wind, snow, and earthquake.

The goal is to ensure that all analytical models are incorporated into the limit states method, the same as currently used for the verification and design of structures.

ISO 13823:2008 covers the following topics:
  • basic concept for verifying durability,
  • durability requirements,
  • design life of a structure and its components,
  • predicted service life, and
  • strategies for durability design.

This International Standard does not directly address sustainability for structures. Most considerations of sustainability, such as the choice of material as it affects waste and energy consumption, are outside its scope. But indirectly, durable structures improve the sustainability of infrastructure.

ISO 13823—General Principles on the Design of Structures for Durability, was developed by ISO technical committee ISO/TC 98, Bases for Design of Structures, Subcommittee SC 2, Reliability of Structures. For more information visit


Wednesday, August 20, 2008

What problem can you solve with 3 million 4 inch balls?

In order to protect a reservoir from sunlight 3 million black plastic balls are being added. The sunlight causes a reaction between the bromide and the chlorine resulting in the carcinogen bromate forming. The balls will not only block the sun but will be loads of fun for local kids! This was done at the Ivanhoe reservoir in LosAngeles county.


Thursday, August 14, 2008

A Formwork Formula: Tips For Success

Formwork—the temporary or permanent molds used to hold wet concrete until it cures—is a crucial element in concrete construction. Just as important is selecting the right type of formwork since that greatly affects the schedule, labor requirements, quality and total cost of a project.

Over the years, formwork molds have evolved from traditional job-built timber to pre-engineered systems composed of a combination of steel, aluminum, manufactured timber, plywood and plastics. These advancements in formwork molds have led to increased jobsite production and safety, with less labor, while producing a better finished product.

Formwork trends
Fewer than 15 years ago, approximately a dozen major formwork systems were readily available in the United States. However, over that short time period, several European forming companies have entered the domestic market, more than doubling the number of systems available.

The increase in competition is pushing innovations to a rate previously unseen in the industry. Thirty-year-old systems that have enjoyed wide use and popularity are being supplanted by new, modern systems that offer greater productivity and a higher quality results.

Walls—Presently, the most prevalent system in use for handset wall forming are steel-framed, wood-faced panels that require consumable ties at 2-feet-on-center and one connection per square foot. These are being replaced with larger, two-person handset systems that require less labor and eliminate consumable purchases because of reusable taper ties.

Gang forming has completely changed over the past 10 years. Older systems of steel-framed wood or steel-faced panels with double channel stiffbacks that connect with bolts/pins have been overtaken by clamp connection forms with wood or plastic form faces that provide tremendous labor savings in assembly and use. Assembly and reconfiguration of these standard systems to meet changing structure dimension happens very quickly, and also provides a consistent concrete finish.

Slabs—The use of fixed or adjustable wood posts, stringers and joists is still the most common method of shoring of slabs in the United States. This method ― passed down from generation to generation ― requires substantial labor. Because the posts are placed as close as 2-feet-on-center, construction sites become very congested.

A new construction method featuring engineered lumber and metal posts increases post spacing up to 5 feet by 10 feet and offers components that are systematic and reusable. This increased spacing allows for less material on site to form the same slab area. Less material means reduced handling requirements, less labor to set up and strip the formwork, lower transport costs, and an increase in overall job site productivity.

The current method for gang-forming slabs uses trusses or structural decks, which require a substantial amount of time for assembly and disassembly. Moreover, this method consumes an enormous amount of crane time, thus increasing the time for resetting a standard operating procedure. The customer must also purchase the plywood facing and sometimes replace it multiple times on the same project.

Because of the expense of setup and takedown, gang-forming slabs are used mostly on structures taller than 15 stories high. Smaller tables ― delivered to the job site fully assembled with plywood ― are becoming a better solution to these systems, especially for mid-rise buildings where gang-forming was previously not economical.

Another innovation that reduces job site crane time and formwork labor requirements is formwork-lifting elevators that mount to the exterior of a building, allowing all formwork to be cycled from floor to floor without the need for a crane. These table-lifting systems are used in conjunction with the smaller table method and also allow for other construction material including handset shoring, vertical formwork and reshores from below to cycle from floor to floor with a crane.

Read more (here)...


Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Oldest New Testament Bible heads into cyberspace

Reuters - Tuesday, July 22
By Dave Graham

BERLIN - More than 1,600 years after it was written in Greek, one of the oldest copies of the Bible will become globally accessible online for the first time this week.

From Thursday, sections of the Codex Sinaiticus, which contains the oldest complete New Testament, will be available on the Internet, said the University of Leipzig, one of the four curators of the ancient text worldwide.

High resolution images of the Gospel of Mark, several Old Testament books, and notes on the work made over centuries will appear on as a first step towards publishing the entire manuscript online by next July.

Ulrich Johannes Schneider, director of Leipzig University Library, which holds part of the manuscript, said the publication of the Codex online would allow anyone to study a work of "fundamental" importance to Christians.

"A manuscript is going onto the net which is like nothing else online to date," Schneider said. "It's also an enrichment of the virtual world -- and a bit of a change from YouTube."

Selected translations will be available in English and German for those not conversant in ancient Greek, he added.

Dating from around 350, the document is believed by experts to be the oldest known copy of the Bible, along with the Codex Vaticanus, another ancient version of the Bible, Schneider said.

The vellum manuscript came to Europe piece by piece from Saint Catherine's Monastery by Mount Sinai after German biblical scholar Konstantin von Tischendorf found a number of folios there in 1844. He was allowed to take some to Leipzig.

Tischendorf returned to the monastery in 1859 with Russian backing and acquired the biggest section of the Bible for his imperial sponsors. It remained in St. Petersburg until the Soviet Union sold it to the British Museum in 1933.

"The first section was clearly a gift to Tischendorf, but that's not so clear in the case of the second portion. The monks all signed a contract at the time, but the rumor persists that they were given a raw deal," said Schneider.

"And there is probably some truth to this."

Subsequent discoveries meant that the original Codex, missing roughly half the Old Testament, is now housed at four locations in Europe and the Middle East.

The project, launched in cooperation with the Russian National Library, the British Library and Saint Catherine's Monastery, also details the condition of the Bible, believed to have been written by early Christians in Egypt.

"I think it's just fantastic that thanks to technology we can now make the oldest cultural artifacts -- ones that were once so precious you couldn't show them to anyone -- accessible to everyone, in really high quality," said Schneider.

source: News

Monday, July 14, 2008

Philippine Alliance of ExSeminarians (PAX)

An update on the creation of the Alliance of ExSeminarians was sent to me by Bolano Peter Marlon last July 9. I thank him for sending me these updates which also give me the opportunity to help spread the endeavor to fellow Exseminarians.

I learned that the creation of the Philippine Alliance of XSeminarians (PAX) had been started a long time ago. From the update that I received - a brief history was included and the following in italics are also from the update. If you are an ExSeminarian and wants to know more about the Philippine Alliance of XSeminarians (PAX), please contact me and i will be very glad to forward to you the updates and current undertakings sent to me by Bolano Peter Marlon.

-It was learned that sometime in the early 70’s an attempt was made to form an association of ex-seminarians through the initiative of the late Orly Punzalan from the UST Central Seminary. Unfortunately, the initiative fizzled out despite the initial gathering of several ex-seminarians which had now Justice Feria as its guest speaker.
-Another attempt was made sometime in 1992 with an assembly of over 100 ex-seminarians from different seminaries which was held at the Guadalupe Minor Seminary at Makati City. For some unknown reasons, there was no other meeting called thereafter.
-The last attempt was made in early 2003 when a group of ex-seminarians met in San Carlos Seminary at Makati City. The group also fizzled out.

With the theme “ut unum simus” (that we may be one) Please Foundation Inc, (Palo Leyte Alumni of the Seminary) initiated the move to organize all ex-seminarians nationwide.


1. MORINGA PROJECT — The group adopted the proposal of Atty. Ribo to plant Moringa/Malungay in a two-hectare land pilot area and to build a factory for this purpose. A multi-purpose cooperative was created to handle this project. This project will then be replicated in other dioceses to benefit the local ex-sems. This project and other future project will make the Alliance financially self-sufficient, provide employment for the ex-sems and augment their incomes. This, and other future similar projects, is the answer to Objective No. 1 (Better economic opportunities (employment and business) and Issue No. 3 (Logistics).

2. WEBSITE — An official website to be called “” is now being designed by Roderick ”Derek” C. Madrunio, a Benedictine ex-sem. This website will contain (a) links to all the alumni websites, the Vatican, the CBCP, and related sites; (b) the directory, relevant and non-confidential information of the members; (c) forum for discussion on relevant issues concerning the alliance; (d) a page for the projects and activities of the alliance; (e) an advertisement of the businesses of the members for a fee; (f) announcement of issues relevant to the alliance and its members; and (g) other features which the members may propose. This website will be our means of knowing and getting-in-touch with each other.

3. Creation of Political Affairs and Good Governance Committee — Though there was a general agreement on the need for moral change and promote good governance in government, it was emphasized that the alliance must respect the political persuasions of each ex-sem. This will is also answer Objective No. 4 (Better participation in governance). Reflecting on this matter later with a friend, I will share some of my ideas on what’s wrong with our political system.

Sometime in 2005, at the height of the “Hello Garci” controversy, Pres. Arroyo justified her “lapse in judgment” (whatever she meant by it) in the political culture prevailing in the country. While it is not a excuse for her “lapse in judgment”, she has a point. In her youth she studied in Assumption College. Like her most of the people in government attended good schools (private Catholic and protestant schools, public schools like UP), where virtues and idealism were inculcated. Like her, we had been idealists who refused to compromise good with evil, we had been dismayed with the way we have been governed, we had hoped to change the system for the better when our time comes; we hoped to change the world, our country and our community. Like her, we lose our idealism to the practicalities of survival and the realities of life.

If we wish to change the world, our country, and our community, we have to change within, we have to change ourselves, we have to go back to the idealism of our youth, we have to remember and practice what were taught to us when we were young. And we have to do them collectively. These are the things which the bishops have been telling us in their pastoral letter “Seeking the Truth, Restoring Integrity” dated February 26, 2008: “For the long term we reiterate our call for “circles of discernment” at the grassroots level, in our parishes, Basic Ecclesial Communities, recognized lay organizations and movements, religious institutions, schools, seminaries and universities. It is through internal conversion into the maturity of Christ through communal and prayerful discernment and action that the roots of corruption are discovered and destroyed. We believe that such communal action will perpetuate at the grassroots level the spirit of People Power so brilliantly demonstrated to the world at EDSA I. It is People Power with a difference. From the grassroots will come out a culture of truth and integrity we so deeply seek and build. We instruct our CBCP Commissions to take active role including networking for this purpose.”

The epitaph of an American Cardinal and borrowed by Sen. Raul Rocco is best to describe it. It says: “When I was a boy I dreamed to change the world, when I became a young man I hoped to change my country, when I became old I hoped to change my community; but now that I am dying I realize that I have to change myself first.”

The Alliance, being an amalgamation of SAA’s and exsems, is in a better position to do this because of the common traits and training of its members. If we could help place enough ex-sems in government by appointment and elections, especially in critical and high positions, we will be in better position to influence the way policies and laws are formulated, enacted and implemented. Without breaking the rule on the separation of state and church, we could instill in the government the social and moral principles taught by the bishops and the Church.

On July 6, a group of 5 exsems were selected as members of this committee. They were mandated to study on how the alliance could better achieve this goal.

4.Creation of Religious Affairs Committee — This committee shall be responsible for religious projects and programs, especially for the holding of retreats.

5.Extension of the date for Relief Efforts for the Victims of Typhoon Frank — This will be the first civic project of the Alliance. For more information please contact Atty. Ricky Ribo at 09193274512.

Sunday, July 13, 2008

World Youth Day

World Youth Day will be in Sydney, Australia from July 15 to 20, 2008. For the official website and for the scheduled activities and events, please see here. Chronicles of World Youth Days can be viewed from the Official website of The Holy See.

World Youth Day established by Pope John Paul II in 1986 as an annual event to reach out to the youth of the world. He was inspired by massive gatherings of young people in Rome celebrating the Youth Jubilee in 1984 and the United Nations International Year of Youth in 1985. He wanted to bring together young Catholics from around the globe to celebrate and learn about their faith on a more regular basis.

Pope John Paul II saw WYD as away to reach out to the next generation of Catholics, to demonstrate confidence in them, to rejuvenate the Church and ensure that the core teachings of Christ are transmitted and lived. World Youth Day is a pilgrimage of faith, where young people from diverse backgrounds meet and experience the love of God.

The first World Youth Day was held in Rome in 1986 on Palm Sunday. Each year since, World Youth Day has been celebrated at a Diocesan level on Palm Sunday.

Every two to three years, World Youth Day is taken to an international host city. The international World Youth Days are a week-long series of events attended by the Pope and hundreds of thousands of young people from all over the world.

The week culminates in a Final Mass celebrated by the Pope on the last day (the actual World Youth Day). Typically, it is the largest event of the week and, overseas, has drawn millions of people.

The Pontifical Council for the Laity (PCL) - a key Vatican body - is responsible for World Youth Days globally .

The Tallest 10 Buildings Completed in 2007

Rising 333 meters high, with 72 stories and 480 suites, the Rose Rotana Tower in Dubai heads the list of the tallest ten buildings completed in 2007. The tower, designed by architects Khatib & Alami and developed by the Bonyan International Investment Group, also becomes the world’s tallest single-use hotel building, taking the title from the Shimao International Plaza in Shanghai. Coming in at second on the list is the New York Times Tower at 319 meters high. The building – the third tallest in New York upon completion – was designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop and FX Fowle Architects and developed by Forest City Ratner Companies. Third on the list is the China International Center Tower B in Guangzhou, whilst fourth is the Naberezhnaya Tower C in Moscow, which at 268 meters high also becomes Europe’s tallest building. All ten tallest buildings constructed in 2007 are outlined in the diagram on the back cover of this journal.

Geographically this list reinforces the current trend of the world’s tallest buildings being completed in the Middle East or Asia; four of the list are located in the Middle East, four in Asia, one in North America, and one in Europe. In terms of program, five of the list are office towers, one accommodates solely hotel function and the remaining four are mixed-use buildings. As always, strict criteria have influenced the putting together of this list; buildings are only eligible if they are topped-out, fully-clad and either ‘open for business’ or at least partially occupied.

The current year, 2008, also promises to be an exciting time in terms of high-rise construction. With the 331 meter high Minsheng Bank Building already completed in Wuhan, and buildings such as the Shanghai World Financial Center (492m, Shanghai), Bank of America Tower (366m, New York), Almas Tower (360m, Dubai), China World Trade Center Tower III (330m, Beijing), One Island East (308m, Hong Kong) and the Burj Dubai Lake Hotel (306m, Dubai) already topped out, this year’s ‘tallest 10’ is set to include at least seven ‘super-tall’ buildings (those with a height of 300 meters or more), a feat that is unprecedented in tall building history. However, it is the year 2009 that is expected to be the pinnacle of the current high-rise construction boom, with the CTBUH predicting the completion of some 20 super-tall towers, led by the phenomenal 800m+ Burj Dubai.

Click here to download the full Tallest 10 Buildings Completed in 2007 list.

source: Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat

Saturday, July 12, 2008

My Past Life

While browsing on the users of, i stumbled on sleinah's page and viewed her blog, Simple Reveries. Her blog was great and i just kept on browsing on her posts until i found this title, "Past Life Tests". I find it so interesting, so i tried it for myself. And who am I in the past?

In a Past Life...

You Were: A Famous Monk.

Where You Lived: North Canada.

How You Died: Killed in Battle.

Senator Mar Roxas - Mr Palengke

‘Mr. Palengke’ is Senator Mar Roxas, the son of the illustrious Senator Gerry Roxas, and the grandson of the venerable President Manuel Roxas whose public service careers have greatly benefited the country.Elected to the Senate in 2004 with a staggering 20 million votes, the largest ever obtained by a candidate in any Philippine election, Mar Roxas has made it his business to champion the people’s agenda on quality education, livelihood opportunities through small and medium enterprises, information technology, consumer welfare and good governance.

His concerns are national and his range international. His consistent performance as an exemplary public official has elevated him with the stature of a respected global leader. The Singapore government chose him as the 16th Lee Kuan Yew Fellow and the World Economic Forum acknowledged him as ‘one of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow who is expected to shape the future.’ ‘One of the young leaders in politics and business who will bring Asia and the Pacific to the forefront of world affairs’ was how the international community described him.

Mar Roxas stamped his mark early at the House of Representatives where, as a congressman, he espoused consumer protection, underscoring the right of every Filipino to affordable medicines, as his personal advocacy.

This consumerist crusade found a larger expression in ‘Presyong Tama, Gamot Pampamilya’ program which he launched during his tenure as trade and industry secretary. The program benefited millions of Filipinos in need of effective but cheaper medicines. In the Senate, this crusade continues with Mar’s authorship of Senate Bill No. 2139, which seeks to lower the cost of medicines by amending the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines. With the approval of this bill, prices of quality medicines are expected to drop resulting in savings for the poor, and better health for all.

Nursing back the economy to robust health through education, information technology, job creation, and development of small and business enterprises are his other passions, reflected in his work as chairperson of the Senate Committees on Trade and Commerce and on Economic Affairs and as co-chairperson of the Congressional Oversight Committee on the Electronic Commerce Law.

His heart goes for consumers who are shortchanged in buying, among others, defective and substandard products. Thus, he initiated inquiries, with the end in view of strengthening the Consumer Code of the Philippines, on such legislative proposals as the ‘Lemon Law’, proper labeling of milk, toys, and food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and stronger safeguards against pyramiding and other similar scams.

When the pre-need industry succumbed to a mismanagement-spawned financial crisis, which threatened to wipe out the investments of thousands of consumers in pre-need plans, he filed a bill, the Pre-Need Act of 2005, to improve and strengthen industry regulation and safeguard consumer interest. Senator Mar’s leadership at the time provided pre-need plan holders a veritable lifeline.

Guided by lofty ideals yet gifted with the common touch, Mar Roxas adheres to the philosophy of ‘palengkenomics’, which considers the palengke as the economy’s weathervane and the mirror by which its over-all health can be seen and measured.

Senator Mar conducts weekly monitoring of the prices of prime commodities and maintains strong linkages with suppliers, traders, and vendors in the different wet markets. “Price is an important economic indicator. It is a crucial determinant of activity in the market place,” he said.

Information and communications technology has found in Mar Roxas a staunch advocate. Hailed as the ‘Father of the Call Center and Business Process Outsourcing Industries’, he saw—and cultivated—the potential of the Philippines as a global e-services hub. As trade and industry secretary, he launched ‘Make IT Philippines’ and organized the first IT-enabled services (ITES) to the US which inevitably led to the biggest global industry names to invest in the country, thereby creating thousands of jobs for Filipino IT workers.

In education, he authored the ‘PCs for Public Schools Project’ to provide student and teachers IT access. To date, the program has distributed 30,000 computers to over 2,000 public high schools nationwide, opening doors on hands-on computer training to 500,000 students yearly and reducing the computer backlog in public high schools by more than half, from 69 percent to 31 percent.

For Roxas, the exercise of public leadership entails accountability and transparency which should bring about people empowerment. He has called for a paradigm shift in policy-making, rejecting incrementalism, or the tingi mentality, which has resulted to ‘doing a little bit of everything to please a little bit of everyone.’

“People can hardly feel the impact of incrementalism. Government must target the people’s most pressing concerns and focus its resources on completely addressing these problems. We can’t be doing what we used to do in the past simply because if we did, there is no reason to expect that the future would be any different,” he says.

He complements his youth and dynamism by listening to the voices of the common Filipino, reaching out to them through personal interaction, the media, and various IT tools. His website,, is a sampler of his IT inclination, an interactive site that dispenses user-friendly information and serves as repository of public sentiment.

Mar Roxas has distinguished himself as a public servant in his own unique way, following the imprints of his forbears yet with the courage and competence to carve his own path as a national leader.


Tuesday, July 8, 2008

Just Something for Fun

A post from My Little World, the blog of deatren (a new friend in caught my attention, and tried it also for myself.. Just for fun....

Enter your date of birth (e.g. November 10) into the Wikipedia search field.

1. List five (5) famous people - dead or alive - born on that day.
- 1433 - Charles, Duke of Burgundy (d. 1477)
- 1483 - Martin Luther, German Protestant reformer (d. 1546)
- 1810 - George Jennings English sanitary engineer (d. 1882)
- 1871 - Winston Churchill, American novelist (d. 1947)
- 1933 - Ronald Evans, American astronaut (d. 1990)

2. List five (5) historical events on that day.
- 1619 - René Descartes has the dreams that inspire his Meditations on First Philosophy.
- 1942 - World War II: Germany invades Vichy France following French Admiral François
Darlan agreement to an armistice with the Allies in North Africa.
- 1951 - Direct-dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.
- 1970 - Vietnam War: Vietnamization - For the first time in five years, an entire week
ends with no reports of American combat fatalities in Southeast Asia.
- 1995 - In Nigeria, playwright and environmental activist Ken Saro-Wiwa along with
others from the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (Mosop) are
hanged by government forces.

3. List any days of national or religious observance that occur on that day.
- Christianity - the feast day of Pope Leo I the Great and Andrew Avellino
- Russia - Day of Militsiya (analogue of police in Russia)
- United States Marine Corps Birthday

Sunday, July 6, 2008

Vinci on board for Qatar-Bahrain bridge

Construction of the Qatar-Bahrain causeway, at 40 km said to be the world’s longest bridge, is due to start next year.

This will be a design-build operation in the hands of a consortium of construction companies led by Vinci Construction Grands Projets. The Middle East Dredging company Medco, a subsidiary of the Vinci Group company CFE, will carry out the dredging work required to build the motorway connection between Qatar and Bahrain.

The value of the contract recently signed between Vinci and Qatari Diar (causeway foundation) is put at US$3 billion.

The project is a joint venture between Vinci Construction Grands Projets and QDVC, a Qatari subsidiary owned 51 per cent by Qatari Diar and 49 per cent by Vinci and its contracting partners.

Other companies in the consortium are Hochtief and Athens based Consolidated Contractors International. The Danish engineering consultant COWI, which conducted pre-contract studies of the causeway, is working as design consultant for the consortium.

A further contract is expected to be awarded shortly for the client representative and program management role. The successful bidder reporting directly to Qatari Diar will be responsible to the client for managing construction of the project.

The causeway calls for design and construction of a dual carriageway motorway connection between the two island states. It will run over a total of 18 km of embankments where the sea is shallow and 22 km of viaducts and bridges over deep water. These will include two 400m cable stayed bridges over shipping channels.

Known as the Friendship Bridge, the causeway will reduce the journey time between Qatar and Bahrain to about 30 minutes compared with five hours by road at present. Work is to start after nine months of further studies and the structure itself is due for completion in 51 months.

source: International Construction Review

Sunday, June 29, 2008


Filipino ring idol and national treasure Manny Pacquiao cemented his place among the legends of boxing with a spectacular ninth round knockout over Mexican-American David Diaz before Pacquiao’s wildly cheering countrymen at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas.

Pacquiao who has been described by boxing writers as the “Mexecutioner” because of his demolition of Mexican legends Marco Antonio Barrera, Erik “El Terrible Morales and Juan Manuel Marquez and battered pretenders like undefeated Jorge Solis. Hector Velasquez, Emmanuel Lucero and Gabriel Mira lived up to his billing by an execution-style annihilation of the game but utterly outclassed Diaz.

A crowd of 8,326 watched Pacquiao fulfill his quest to re-write history by becoming the first Filipino and indeed the first Asian to win four world titles not counting the Ring Magazine featherweight championship which he won when he mauled Marco Antonio Barrera into submission in eleven rounds in November 2003 in the Alamadome in Texas, home of the San Antonio Spurs.

This time around it was the NBA champions Boston Celtics who were at special ringside to cheer Pacquiao who had invited them to watch the fight. Pacquiao endeared himself to the Celtics when, despite training in Los Angeles he picked the Celtics as his favorite team to beat the Lakers and when they did their admiration for one another was strengthened even further.

Kevin Garnett, Paul Pierce and Ray Allen went into Pacquiao’s crowded dressing room after the fight to congratulate the No.1 pound-for-pound fighter in the world who put on a display that overwhelmingly justified his Ring Magazine choice. Even if Floyd Mayweather Jr hadn’t retired, editor-in-chief Nigel Collins would have had a hard time not recognizing Pacquiao as No.1 based on his near flawless performance against Diaz.

Pacquiao who plays basketball with almost the same passion as he displays in the ring said he was “so happy to see my idols, the Boston Celtics.

Despite moving up to 135 pounds Pacquiao’s speed didn’t seem to diminish at all especially against a much slower Diaz who himself admitted he didn’t see the cracking left hook that dropped him face down in the ninth round after Pacquiao set him up with a stinging right straight.

It was as clinical an execution fight fans could ever witness and it began from the opening bell when Pacquiao exploded with vicious combinations that accentuated his speed. Pacquiao whose skills have been honed to perfection by celebrated trainer Freddie Roach showed exemplary footwork, new-found weapons in the hook and the uppercut and a stinging right straight that went with his devastating left.

Following Roach’s fight-plan throughout, Pacquiao didn’t allow Diaz the luxury of getting him pinned against the ropes and bludgeoned with body shots but spun out of trouble on a few occasions he was driven there and kept the fight in the center of the ring where his vaunted speed, literally killed any hope that Diaz nursed in his courageous heart.

Round after round Pacquiao ripped into the 1996 Olympian in a gold medal performance, inflicted a cut across the bridge of the lightweight champion’s nose and then opened up a nasty gash on his right eyebrow that began to ooze with blood prompting referee Vic Drakulich to have the ringside physician take a look at it not once but twice.

Instructed by assistant trainer Buboy Fernandez to feint with the right and then throw an uppercut Pacquiao hurt Diaz in round eight and when Diaz went to his corner at the end of the round he was seen shaking his head in disbelief.

Pacquiao sensed by this time that the fight had been taken out of the game Diaz and after rocking Diaz with a right he threw a right straight and as the 135 pound champion moved forward cracked him with a thunderous, perfectly-timed left hook sending Diaz crashing to the canvas flat on his face. Drakulich counted Diaz out at 2:24 of round nine.

In a post-fight interview Pacquiao said it was not easy to move up in weight but he was “lucky that God gave me the strength” Pacquiao said he felt “stronger” at 135 pounds and “it would be better to stay at 135 or I can fight at 140 pounds.”

He said he was “not worried about taking the punches” of the naturally heavier Diaz although he credited Diaz with being “the toughest opponent I ever had. I was surprised that he took a lot of strong punches, power punches and still stood up.” Later on Pacquiao conceded “he did hurt me one time during the fight.”

Diaz said he didn’t think Pacquiao “was that fast.” He said he “saw Manny getting a little tired a little bit at the end” and said to himself his tactic of trying to wear Pacquiao down was working but “he caught me with a good shot and that’s the way it goes. Sometimes you got to go out and say he was the better man tonight.”

Diaz admitted he didn’t see the punch that decked him, coming. “I was thinking he doesn’t hit that hard and then I was on the floor and I looked up and said what the heck. My hats off to him (Pacquiao). He is a great, great fighter and more than what I expected. You got to tip your hat off to him and say you are f—king good and that’s what Manny was.”

Top Rank promoter Bob Arum said “Manny is a great fighter and when he trains hard like he did, there’s nobody that can beat him. He really is a phenomenon. People say he is the best pound-for-pound fighter in the world. I believe he is.”

Arum said at present there are a lot of good lightweights for Pacquiao to fight but that WBA super featherweight champion Edwin Valero who has won all his fights by knockout would be a good fight. He also mentioned lightweight champion Nate Campbell.

Arum said Pacquiao’s lifestyle in the past was a drawback and that he and Roach had decided to put him in the gym in Los Angeles because there is no training in the Philippines anymore. Arum pointed out “look the shape he is in. Look how many punches he threw and didn’t get tired.”

For Roach who had predicted Pacquiao would win by a knockout in the eighth or ninth round his prized possession carried out his fight plan “to the tee. I am very proud of Manny.”

Pacquiao dedicated his victory to the victims of the recent devastating typhoon and said his “inspiration was drawn from those who suffered” even as he promised to provide whatever help he could when he returns home.

Pacquiao succeeded where the late great Hall-of-Famer Gabriel “Flash” Elorde failed when he twice fought Puerto Rican Carlos Ortiz for the world lightweight title and was stopped on both occasions in the 14th round, the second by knockout which was the first in Elorde’s illustrious career as world junior lightweight champion for almost seven-and-a-half years.


Friday, June 27, 2008

2008 Beijing Olympics

The countdown for the games began and the countdown for medals to be won will be viewed from here:


The Ideal Resume

Just want to share an email to me by iHireConstruction on how to make your resume and what should be the contents of an ideal resume. Here it is as i qoute:

"An employer’s first impression of a potential hire is usually their résumé. Your résumé must say almost everything about you as a professional. You’re competing with many applicants, so you may have less than 30 seconds, and limited words, to make a good impression. Be sure that your résumé is well-written and grammatically correct.

You should always begin with accurate contact information. The details here are needed by potential employers for background checks, reference verification, and to contact you to schedule an interview. Inaccurate information is cause for concern and suspicion—the employer may think you’re sloppy or have something to hide. Also, opportunity may only knock once, and if an employer can’t reach you, they may not try again.

Next, state your detailed career objective, which is the reason why you want to apply for the position. By including specific goals and avoiding general ones, the employer will see that your interests complement the best interests of their organization.

Your next section should include the relevant skills and knowledge that you’ve acquired in your current and previous jobs and highlight your major professional accomplishments. By detailing your experiences and achievements, you present evidence of your potential to succeed in the position and demonstrate the qualities that you possess and can contribute to further the growth of the employer’s organization.

If your skills and accomplishments are not described in an employment timeline, a professional history will be your next section. Your working life must be chronicled with specific dates, and you must avoid all gaps, even if you spent time in non-professional pursuits. Career breaks for education, family, and personal interests won’t count against you, and missing information may arouse suspicion and concern. Remember that your résumé should answer more questions than it raises.

Your educational background will comprise the next section. Some positions require degrees, licenses, and certifications. Listing your earned credentials provides evidence of your most measurable skills and demonstrates your ability to achieve important goals and see a challenging task through to its end.

The final section may provide information about memberships, hobbies, and interests. Some employers look beyond potential applicants’ qualifications for their position and are attracted to those who are well-rounded. Being active in certain organizations, especially as a leader, may demonstrate your commitment to your profession and your community and suggest unconventional resources that may enhance your ability to succeed.

Last, list your professional and character references or state your willingness to provide them.

There is no ideal résumé—each depends on the job and the employer. However, a good résumé is the critical first step to securing an interview and a new opportunity."

source: email dated june 14, 2008

Monday, June 23, 2008

Building the World Trade Center (1983) Documentary

This is a documentary about how was the World Trade Center was built. Critical Path Method (CPM) was utilize as the scheduling tool to ensure smooth progress on deliveries of materials (steel sections) that should arrive at the exact order and to the exact time needed. "CPM would coordinate every aspect of construction, track the flow of materials and minimize any delays."

source: Google Video

Friday, June 20, 2008

the "PACMAN"

Filipino national treasure Manny Pacquiao wants to create boxing history by succeeding in his quest to win a fourth world title when he battles World Boxing Council lightweight champion David Diaz at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas on June 28.

In a media conference call Pacquiao said “it’s very important to me and my country to put my name into boxing history.”

Pacquiao dispelled concerns that he may have lost some of his vaunted punching power and remarkable speed by moving up to lightweight (135 lbs) from super featherweight where he is champion after winning the title via a split decision from Juan Manuel Marquez last March 15. He said “I believe I am stronger than him (Diaz) at 135 pounds “ even as he indicated he had maintained his speed and in fact increased his strength.

Pacquiao is regarded as one of the most exciting fighters in the world today and was only recently elevated to the top of the pound-for-pound rankings by the “Bible of Boxing” Ring Magazine after Floyd Mayweather Jr officially informed Ring that he was retiring.

But Diaz who sent Mexican legend Erik “El Terrible” Morales into retirement after Pacquiao had hammered him into submission in a ten-round demolition in their rematch and a three round annihilation in the third fight of a brutal trilogy, isn’t fazed saying “I want this fight more than he does.”

In a Top Rank TV special Diaz who, like Pacquiao is managed by astute promoter Bob Arum said “This is a guy who has been going in different weight classes beating up on people and now he’s trying to do that at 135 and I think he’s going to run into a little bit of problems.”

Well-known boxing writer Doug Fischer says that style-wise the fight is a crowd-pleaser noting that Diaz, an American with a Mexican heritage and a former US Olympian, is a “pressure fighter and someone who likes to hunt his opponent down in the ring while Manny Pacquiao is a dynamic explosive fighter. He’s got all the natural talent in the world. He’s got the speed, he’s got the power.”

Arum said Diaz is known for non-stop activity and “throws punches to the body, to the head and tends to wear down his opponent. He has a rock-solid chin and an unlimited reservoir of energy while Manny Pacquiao we all know. He’s been a devastating puncher at the lower weight divisions and throws a million punches.”


Title: WBC Super Featherweight Champion
Record: W 46 (35 ko's) | L 3 | D 2
Age: 29
Reach: 67"
Height: 5′ 6½''
Stance: Southpaw

Title: WBC Lightweight Champion
Record: W 34 (17 ko's) | L 1 | D 1
Age: 31
Reach: 69"
Height: 5'6"
Stance: Southpaw


Sunday, June 15, 2008

Civilisation - Civil Engineers' Response

Great is to be a Civil Engineer. Infrastructures around us makes life easier and safer to live.

"We remember great civilisations such as the Romans, Egyptians and Maya - all were able to develop building techniques and systems to support life. Today, civilisation relies more than ever on teams of inventive people to design, build and maintain the sophisticated environment that surrounds us."

Watch the little DVD of civilisation now:


Saturday, May 31, 2008

What is the "PIAN LEGACY"?

Pian Legacy? What is it? Who has this legacy? Why is it a legacy? Who are the Pians?

Questions that you may ask as you read my welcome note "Civil Engineering, Pian Legacy and Myself".

Let me start defining "legacy"... says, "something handed down from an ancestor or a
predecessor or from the past"

the "Pians"...
"Quadrivium" and "Walking Together" by Pian Peter Marlon Exmundo, CPA says, a Pian is “anybody who had studied and stayed in the Seminary of St. Pius X for at least one year. By this definition the members of the hierarchy, including the Pope, are also ex-seminarians. The only difference between “lay” ex-seminarians and the hierarchy is that they were the few “chosen” by the Holy Spirit among the many who were “called”. Thus, we could also call the hierarchy as “ordained” ex-seminarians."

I am very proud to say that it is very fulfilling to be educated and disciplined under the formation of St. Pius X Seminary. Though I have not continued my college with the Seminary, I always remember Msgr. Joe Advincula's (rector that time), message to me during discernment, the words may not be exact but the thought is very clear, "I know you want to help your family financially that's why you want to explore life outside but don't ever forget to strive to live a Christian Life as instilled to you by St. Pius X Seminary. Life inside the seminary was great, the brotherhood which I have with, not only to my classmates, "The Martins", but also to other levels created a value which I have now with my life. Though I have not yet returned to St. Pius X Seminary after high school graduation, the love and the pride within me for the Seminary overflows. And, for the thought that we graduated or once studied in a seminary already created a pride which no one can take. Since, "The seminary is not an ordinary educational institution created and incorporated solely under national laws and regulated by the appropriate government agencies such as the Department of Education and the SEC, but was also created under the laws of the Church and regulated by the Vatican, which is a sovereign state independent of the Philippine government or any government thereat, and administered by the bishop through his priests. Further, its purpose is not only to “educate” but also to train boys and young men for the presbytery and the future leaders of the Church — regardless of the motive of the seminarian for studying there."

Therefore, Pian Legacy is a legacy of ideals of St. Pius X and the formators of the seminary who instilled to the Pians to be soldiers and promoter of God's Love, "whose power comes only from God" (Rom. xiii., 1) — “E Supremi”, the first Papal Encyclical of the 257th pope, Pius X – On the Restoration of All Things in Christ –issued on 4 October 1903.

Do you know:
Fr. Jaime L. Sin, is the be the first rector of the new seminary. Together, with Bishop Antonio Frondosa (second Bishop of Capiz and founder of Seminary of St. Pius X) adopted the word “Serviam” (I will serve) as the motto of the seminarians of St. Pius X, who will later be call themselves “Pîans”. Thus “Serviam” became the third summation of the Pian ideals, the first and second of which are: (1) “Instaurare Omnia in Christo” (To Restore All Things in Christ), the papal motto of Pius X, and (2) “Sicut Bonum Miles Christi” (To be a Good Soldier of Christ), the episcopal motto of Bishop Frondosa.

To my fellow Pians: "Ego sum semper vobiscum." (This sentence was in our Latin Notes! I think the red color one. The meaning, "I am always with you.", am I right? I miss those times when we got to translate Latin and Spanish sentences, word by word... The arriba - abajo... )

Words In Italics were taken from "Quadrivium" and "Walking Together" by Pian Peter Marlon Exmundo, CPA.

Monday, May 26, 2008

Grief in Rubble (Deadly Engineering Shortcuts)

A report from the caught my attention on "Chinese Are Left to Ask Why Schools Fell" published on May 25, 2008.UNEQUAL DAMAGE. Xinjian Primary School in Dujiangyan was destroyed,
while a kindergarten, at left, and a hotel were barely damaged.

This is a picture from the report, how the Xinjian Primary School turned into rubble. Have this been avoided if the school was constructed with the right materials (quantity and quality) and with the right construction methodologies? The answer is, certainly yes.

As qouted from the report, "Techniques for fortifying buildings to withstand earthquakes have been clearly understood for decades. Use high-quality concrete. Embed extra iron rods. Tie them tightly into bundles with strong wire. Ensure that components of floors, walls and columns are firmly attached. Pay special attention to columns, which are the key to having a building sway rather than topple."

Another excerpt, "The most pronounced failing at Xinjian seemed to be inadequate steel reinforcement of the concrete columns supporting the school, experts said. There were too few rebar reinforcing rods and too little of the thin binding wire that holds the rebar together. And, critically, the steel bindings attaching the concrete flooring slabs were inadequate."

How to help:
China Disaster Relief, China Earthquake Appeal if you are in Singapore, and your prayers.

Sunday, May 25, 2008

Record breaking Structures

Taipei 101 is now the tallest building in the world until the completion of Burj Dubai. The list for the tallest structure, free standing structures and building, those that are under construction and those that are proposed (the future record-breaking structures) can be found here. For the list of the Official World's 200 Tallest High Rise Buildings, visit this link.

Image provided by, Jerome. A good friend working in Burj Dubai.>>>

What is the tallest?

Since the dawn of history man has been trying to build the 'tallest building', 'tallest tower' or 'tallest structure' in the world. There seems to be much prestige in being home to the worlds tallest. So much in fact that this is a major issue on the political agenda of many countries. Many towers claim the title, and many cities quarrel about who is the winner. The Tallest Building in the world pages will try to answer the question above, and welcomes you to the most complete article about this subject, anywhere to be found on the Internet.

During the first 90 years of this century, the USA dominated the race for the title of the tallest building in the world, and constructed a range of famous buildings that, sometimes only for a few months, and sometimes for many years, were widely recognized as being the 'tallest building' in the world. In 1974 Chicago's Sears Tower was completed, and generally seen as the 'tallest building' in the world. Sears held on to that title for over 20 years. But since the ninetees the USA gets some stiff competition from Asia. In 1996 this resulted in the completion of the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur. From that moment on a sort of media clash was unleashed. All over the world people debated about the question wich one was the tallest; Sears or Petronas. Now the answer to this question seems so easy. Just measure both buildings from bottom to top, and the tallest one gets the title. Question answered, case closed, no more debate needed? Forget it! As usual, life is not that simple. One could consider how to measure these buildings. For example, do we take in account spires and antennas? To end this discussion, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat made a compromise. They defined 4 categories for measuring tall buildings;

- Height to the structural or architectural top.
- Height to the highest occupied floor.
- Height to the top of the roof.
- Height to the top of antenna.


Sunday, May 18, 2008

Singapore Flyer - Record-Setting Wheel

"Singapore Flyer" holds the title for being the World's largest Giant Observation Wheel, but it will not stay long as China is building the "Beijing Great Wheel" scheduled opening on the end of 2009.

In March—115 years after the giant, steel-tension wheel built by American structural engineer George Ferris debuted at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago—an observation wheel nearly twice that size opened to the public. At a height of 165 meters, the waterfront Singapore Flyer has entered the record books as the tallest circulating wheel in history. Its developers look for the Flyer to become a tourist attraction on the order of the 135-meter-tall London Eye in England, the world's previous tallest wheel titlist. During its seven-year existence from 2001 until 2008, the Eye has become one of London's top visitor destinations—on par with Big Ben, Buckingham Palace, and the Tower of London—carrying 3.5 million passengers per year.

The Singapore and London wheels are both spider-web-looking, structural-steel tension wheels inspired by Ferris' invention, although more streamlined. They feature air-conditioned passenger capsules on the outer rim of the wheel's circumference. Because of these refinements—and the fact that the London eye is cantilevered off a single support tower rather than built between two supports like the 1893 Chicago wheel structure—the British claim their wheel is not a Ferris wheel. Rather, it's a new type of "observation wheel." (No need to credit an American with being the first at anything, right?)

Whether the grand Singapore wheel will diminish the luster of London's wheel or be as popular remains to be seen. However, the Singapore structure will not hold the record for long. Currently under construction is an even bigger "Ferris wheel" to open in Beijing, China, in 2009. Called the Beijing Great Wheel, it will rise to 208 meters. In reference to the structure, reporters like Ben Blanchard of Reuters are already coining such phrases as "You've climbed the Great Wall of China, now Beijing wants you to 'fly' the Great Wheel of China."

It may be coincidence, but facts are facts. Two of the world's most pacesetting structural innovations—the Ferris wheel and skyscrapers—began in the United States in the city of Chicago. Both structural types instigated today's global quest to outdo one's neighbor by building increasingly higher observation/pleasure-wheel structures and taller buildings. The two daring, 19th-century American structural engineers responsible for these construction record-setters—both using structural steel for the first time—were Pittsburgh-based Ferris and Chicago-based William Jenny, designer of the 1885 Home Insurance Building, the world's first skyscraper.

It's sad that neither icon still stands; both victims of the wrecking ball and progress. The Ferris wheel's demise is especially poignant. At the time of its invention, engineers in the United States were challenged to come up with something to out-Eiffel engineer Gustave Eiffel's Eiffel Tower—the sensation of the 1889 World's Fair in Paris. Ferris' response to the challenge, like Eiffel's structure, became the star of the show. Unlike the Eiffel Tower, it was removed right after its fair closed, then demolished. Fortunately, a smaller duplicate of it (a 61-meter-diameter wheel) was built and unveiled in Prather Park in Vienna, Austria, two years later. It still operates—an attribute to American ingenuity.

Even though taller passenger wheels like the Singapore Flyer are overshadowing the original 76-meter-diameter Chicago wheel, none have broken its carrying capacity: 36 carriages holding 60 people for a full load of 2,160 people per revolution. In contrast, the London Eye has 32 capsules that hold 25 for a total of 800 passengers; the Singapore Flyer has 28 capsules carrying 28 people for a total of 784; and the Great Wheel will have 48 capsules carrying 40 for a total load of 1,920 per revolution.

Although each giant observation wheel being built today could be considered a tribute to what Ferris and America's great Chicago World's Fair produced, it's a shame that no suitable reminder remains within the United States to commemorate Ferris' remarkable 19th-century engineering feat.

The Design:

Thursday, May 15, 2008

"Why the Towers Fell", NOVA PBS Special

I happen to see this link from the ASCE website. Hope you'll enjoy and learn something from the investigation as conducted by Civil Engineer S. Shyam Sunder. The "Impact to Collapse" is an expert-narrated slide show of the Twin Towers' final minutes.


Monday, May 5, 2008

What is Civil Engineering?

After spending some times in the net and on the shelves looking for the best meaning of "Civil Engineering", I finally found it. This is the first definition I met and it was when I'm still in the university; it was then that I know what it is to be a Civil Engineer. Here it is, and I qoute:

"Civil engineering is the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and physical sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the progressive well-being of humanity in creating, improving, and protecting the environment, in providing facilities for community living, industry and transportation, and in providing structures for the use of humanity."
American Society of Civil Engineers, 1961

another definition is:

"...the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns."
Institution of Civil Engineers' original charter, 1828


Civil Engineer's World claims no credit for any images/videos featured on this site unless otherwise noted. All visual content is a Copyright to it’s respectful owners(links). Civil Engineer's World is in no way responsible for or has control of the content of any external web links. Information on this site may contain errors or inaccuracies and Civil Engineer's World does not make warranty as to the correctness or reliability of the webs' content. If you own rights to any of the images and contents, and do not wish them to appear on this site, please contact Civil Engineer World by and they will be promptly removed.

On posts about Financial Literacy:
Any forward looking statements, market predictions, analysis written on this site should be treated with caution. The market may move in the direction different from any person's opinion. In no occasion that I am responsible to your loss based on the details you have read on this website. Investment requires due diligence, study and experience before gains can be achieved and the readers are responsible for the trades they are executing. Contents of the page may be changed without prior notice.